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Other important Automobile Manufacturers —

Hyundai - south korea
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Volvo – Sweden
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1. Google— Larry Page & Sergey Brin
2. Facebook— Mark Zuckerberg
3. Yahoo— David Filo & Jerry Yang
4. Twitter— Jack Dorsey & Dick Costolo
5. Internet— Tim Berners Lee
6. Linkdin— Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue& Koonstantin Guericke
7. Email— Shiva Ayyadurai
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12. Wikipedia— Jimmy Wales
13. You tube— Steve Chen, Chad Hurley & JawedKarim
14. Rediffmail— Ajit Balakrishnan
15. Nimbuzz— Martin Smink & Evert Jaap Lugt
16. Myspace— Chris Dewolfe & Tom Anderson
17. Ibibo— Ashish Kashyap
18. OLX— Alec Oxenford & Fabrice Grinda
19. Skype— Niklas Zennstrom,JanusFriis & Reid Hoffman
20. Opera— Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner & Geir lvarsoy
21. Mozilla Firefox— Dave Hyatt & Blake Ross
22. Blogger— Evan Willams
The Nobel Assembly on 6 October 2014 decided to award the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to John O´Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser. The award was given for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.

The Nobel Laureates of 2014 have discovered a positioning system, aninner GPS in the brain that makes it possible to orient ourselves in space, demonstrating a cellular basis for higher cognitive function.

Positioning System

In 1971, John O´Keefe discovered the first component of this positioning system. He found that a type of nerve cell in an area of the brain called the hippocampus that was always activated when a rat was at a certain place in a room. Other nerve cells were activated when the rat was at other places. O´Keefe concluded that these place cells formed a map of the room.

More than three decades later, in 2005, May-Britt and Edvard Moser discovered another key component of the brain’s positioning system. They identified another type of nerve cell, which they called grid cells,that generate a coordinate system and allow for precise positioning and pathfinding. Their subsequent research showed how place and grid cells make it possible to determine position and to navigate.

The discoveries of John O´Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser have solved a problem that has occupied philosophers and scientists for centuries – how does the brain create a map of the space surrounding us and how can we navigate our way through a complex environment?

About the awardess
John O’Keefe: He was born in 1939 in New York City, USA. He holds both American and British citizenships. John O´Keefe is currently Director of the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre in Neural Circuits and Behaviour at University College London.

He received his doctoral degree in physiological psychology from McGill University, Canada in 1967. After that, he moved to England for postdoctoral training at University College London. He has remained at University College and was appointed Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience in 1987.
May-Britt Moser: She was born in Norway in 1963 and is a Norwegian citizen. Currently, she is the Director of the Centre for Neural Computation in Trondheim. She studied psychology at the University of Oslo together with her future husband and co-Laureate Edvard Moser. She received her Ph.D. in neurophysiology in 1995.
She was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Edinburgh and subsequently a visiting scientist at University College London before moving to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim in 1996. May-Britt Moser was appointed Professor of Neuroscience in 2000.

Edvard I. Moser: He was born in 1962 in Norway and has Norwegian citizenship. Currently, he is the director of the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience in Trondheim.
He obtained his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the University of Oslo in 1995. He was a postdoctoral fellow together with his wife and coLaureate MayBritt Moser, first at the University of Edinburgh and later a visiting scientist in John O´Keefe´s laboratory in London. 

In 1996 they moved to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, where Edvard Moser became Professor in 1998.




Medal
Name
Sport
Event
Date
 Gold
Jitu Rai
Shooting
Men's 50 metre pistol
20 September
 Gold
Rajat Chauhan
Sandeep Kumar
Abhishek Verma
Archery
Men's team compound
27 September
 Gold
Saurav Ghosal
Mahesh Mangaonkar
Harinder Pal Sandhu
Kush Kumar
Squash
Men's team
27 September
 Gold
Yogeshwar Dutt
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 65 kg
28 September
 Gold
Seema Punia
Athletics
Women's discus throw
29 September
 Gold
Sania Mirza
Saketh Myneni
Tennis
Mixed doubles
29 September
 Gold
Mary Kom
Boxing
Women's 51 kg
1 October
 Gold
Men's hockey team
Field hockey
Men
2 October
 Gold
Priyanka Pawar
Tintu Luka
Mandeep Kaur
M. R. Poovamma
Athletics
Women's 4 x 400 metres relay
2 October
 Gold
Women's kabaddi team
Kabaddi
Women
3 October
 Gold
Men's kabaddi team
Kabaddi
Men
3 October
 Silver
Saurav Ghosal
Squash
Men's singles
23 September
 Silver
Pemba Tamang
Vijay Kumar
Gurpreet Singh
Shooting
Men's 25 metre center fire pistol team
26 September
 Silver
Dipika Pallikal
Joshna Chinappa
Anaka Alankamony
Squash
Women's team
27 September
 Silver
Abhishek Verma
Archery
Men's individual compound
27 September
 Silver
Khushbir Kaur
Athletics
Women's 20 kilometres walk
28 September
 Silver
Manju Bala
Athletics
Women's hammer throw
28 September
 Silver
Sanam Singh
Saketh Myneni
Tennis
Men's doubles
29 September
 Silver
Bajrang Kumar
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 61 kg
29 September
 Silver
Vikas Gowda
Athletics
Men's discus throw
30 September
 Silver
Tintu Luka
Athletics
Women's 800 metres
1 October
 Bronze
Shweta Chaudhary
Shooting
Women's 10 metre air pistol
20 September
 Bronze
Jitu Rai
Samaresh Jung
Prakash Nanjappa
Shooting
Men's 10 metre air pistol team
21 September
 Bronze
Saina Nehwal
P. V. Sindhu
P. C. Thulasi
Pradnya Gadre
N. Siki Reddy
Ashwini Ponnappa
Badminton
Women's team
21 September
 Bronze
Rahi Sarnobat
Anisa Sayyed
Heena Sidhu
Shooting
Women's 25 metre pistol team
22 September
 Bronze
Dipika Pallikal
Squash
Women's singles
22 September
 Bronze
Abhinav Bindra
Ravi Kumar
Sanjeev Rajput
Shooting
Men's 10 metre air rifle team
23 September
 Bronze
Abhinav Bindra
Shooting
Men's 10 metre air rifle
23 September
 Bronze
Sanathoi Devi Yumnam
Wushu
Women's sanda 52 kg
23 September
 Bronze
Narender Grewal
Wushu
Men's sanda 60 kg
23 September
 Bronze
Dushyant Chauhan
Rowing
Men's lightweight single sculls
24 September
 Bronze
Sawarn Singh
Rowing
Men's single sculls
25 September
 Bronze
Kapil Sharma
Ranjit Singh
Bajrang Lal Takhar
Robin Panachithanathu Ulahannan
Sawan Kumar Kalkal
Mohammad Azad
Maninder Singh
Davinder Singh
Mohammed Ahmed
Rowing
Men's coxed eight
25 September
 Bronze
Shagun Chowdhary
Shreyasi Singh
Varsha Varman
Shooting
Women's double trap team
25 September
 Bronze
Sandeep Sejwal
Swimming
Men's 50 metre breaststroke
26 September
 Bronze
Trisha Deb
Purvasha Shende
Jyothi Surekha Vennam
Archery
Women's team compound
27 September
 Bronze
Chain Singh
Shooting
Men's 50 metre rifle three positions
27 September
 Bronze
Trisha Deb
Archery
Women's individual compound
27 September
 Bronze
Vinesh Phogat
Wrestling
Women's freestyle 48 kg
27 September
 Bronze
Geetika Jakhar
Wrestling
Women's freestyle 63 kg
27 September
 Bronze
Lalita Babar
Athletics
Women's 3000 metres steeplechase
27 September
 Bronze
Yuki Bhambri
Tennis
Men's singles
28 September
 Bronze
Yuki Bhambri
Divij Sharan
Tennis
Men's doubles
28 September
 Bronze
Sania Mirza
Prarthana Thombare
Tennis
Women's doubles
28 September
 Bronze
M. R. Poovamma
Athletics
Women's 400 metres
28 September
 Bronze
Rajiv Arokia
Athletics
Men's 400 metres
28 September
 Bronze
O. P. Jaisha
Athletics
Women's 1500 metres
29 September
 Bronze
Narsingh Pancham Yadav
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 74 kg
29 September
 Bronze
Naveen Kumar
Athletics
Men's 3000 metres steeplechase
29 September
 Bronze
Laishram Sarita Devi
Boxing
Women's 60 kg
30 September
 Bronze
Pooja Rani
Boxing
Women's 75 kg
30 September
 Bronze
Varsha Gautham
Aishwarya Nedunchezhiyan
Sailing
Women's two person dinghy
30 September
 Bronze
Women's hockey team
Field hockey
Women
1 October
 Bronze
Annu Rani
Athletics
Women's javelin throw
1 October
 Bronze
Satish Kumar
Boxing
Men's +91 kg
2 October
 Bronze
Vikas Krishan Yadav
Boxing
Men's 75 kg
2 October
 Bronze
Inderjeet Singh
Athletics
Men's shot put
2 October

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