June 12, 2015

Books & Author - Must read for all competitive exams

Books and Author


  1. Life of Pi ------ Yann Martel
  2. When Loss is Gain ------ Diplomat Pavan K.Varma
  3. One Day Wonders ------ Sunil Gavaskar
  4. My life and Times ------ V.V. Giri
  5. Kalpana Chawla - A Life ------ Anil Padmanaban
  6. Kamasutra ------- Vatsayana
  7. War and Piece ----- Leo Tolstoy
  8. Devdas -------- Sharat Chandra Chatterjee
  9. Half a Life -------- V.S Naipoul
  10. Unhappy India ----- Lala Lajpat Rai
  11. Jyoti punj ------ Narendra Modi
  12. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes -- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  13. Economic History of India ------- R. C. Dutt
  14. The book of Indian Birds ------- Dr. Salim Ali
  15. Living with Honour ------ Shiv Khera
  16. We Indians, Train To Pakistan, Women and Men in My Life ------Khuswant Singh
  17. The Discovery of India -------- Jawaharlal Nehru
  18. Indian Philosophy -------- Dr. S. RadhaKrishnan
  19. Gulliver Travels ------- Jonathan Swift
  20. My Nation My Life ----- L.K. Advani
  21. Independence ------- S.K. Banerjee
  22. Last Days of Nethaji ------- G.D. Khosla
  23. My Experiments with Truth ------- Mahatma Gandhi
  24. The God of Small Things ------- Arundhati Roy
  25. War and Piece ------ Tolstoy
  26. Wakeup India ----- Annie Besant
  27. Two Lives, The Golden Gate, A Suitable Boy, Arion and The Dolphin, An Equal Music, From Heaven Lake:Travels ------ Vikram Seth
  28. India First ------- K. R. Malkani
  29. My Life -------- Bill Clinton
  30. Dreams From My Father -------- Barack Obama
  31. The Future of India ------- Dr. Bimal Jalan
  32. Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear ------- Shakespear

June 08, 2015

General Knowledge - Facts File

1. BRICS bank (“New Development Bank”) headquarters?- China
2. “The Tunnel of Time” is the book written by? - RK Laxman
3. Total no. of matches played in World Cup? - 49
4. The Urban Cooperative banks associated with high powered committee? - R.Gandhi
5. First double century in the World cup tournament? - Chris Gayle (WI) against Zimbabwe
6. Expansion of “LRS”? Liberalised Remittance Scheme
7. The minimum paid-up equity capital for payments banks shall be? 100 Crore
8. A firm who come under the Social Responsibility scheme will be having the annual turnover in the range? - 500 Crore

9. Indian Govt has banned the 500 /-, 1000 /-,100 /- rupee notes of the year? 2005
10. Account for girl child proposed by Indian govt with the name? Sukanya Samridhi Account
11. Which actor started his debut career as commentator in the worldcup recently - Amitab Bachan
12. “Digital Village” is the scheme proposed by which bank? - ICICI bank
13. “Rupay” is the scheme proposed by which organization? - NPCI
14. The new name proposed for IRDA is? - Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India
15. IFSC code that uniquely identifies a bank-branch was formed by? - RBI
16. MSME expansion? Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises
17. First mono rail is launched from ? - Mumbai
18. BMB is what type of bank? - Nationalised Bank
19. Cardless transaction introduced by? - ICICI bank
20. Expansion of NAV? - Net Asset Value
21. Finance commission increased the share of states from 32 to --------% Tax? - 42 %

June 07, 2015

Did you know these basic facts?


Q1. Where was the Civil disobedience movement launched in 1922?
Ans. Bardoli

Q2. At which session of the Indian National Congress was “Vande Mataram” sung for the first time?
Ans.1896 Session

Q3. When the Republic of India was officially proclaimed?
Ans. 26 January 1950

Q4. Who is father of the Nation?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi

Q5. The colors of our Indian Flag hold a special significance. What does the blue wheel positioned in the center of the Flag signifies?
Ans. Wheel of Law

Q6. Indian National Congress was founded by?
Ans. Allan Octavian Hume

Q7. This PM pioneered the slogan "Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan". He got part of his name from Kashi Vidya Peetha. Who is he?
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri

Q8. Name the Prime minister who gave a very famous speech “A Tryst with Destiny”?
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru

Q9. When the Salt March and civil disobedience started?
Ans. 11 March and 6 April 1930

Q10. When did Gandhiji start the Sabarmati Ashram?
Ans.1916

Q11. Name the viceroy of India when the Rowlatt Act was repealed?
Ans. Lord Reeding

Q12. Who wrote the book “The origin of the Indian National Congress”?
Ans. Pattabhi Sita Ramayya.

Q13. In which act, the rule of East India Company ended in India?
Ans. Govt. of India Act, 1858.

Q14. Which year onwards Gandhi Jayanthi is celebrated as international non violence day?
Ans. 2007

Q15. When did India attain Independence?
Ans. 15 August 1947

Q16. “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it” is the slogan given by which famous leader?
Ans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Q17. Who gave Gandhi the title “Mahatma”?
Ans. Rabindranath Tagore

Q18. Who was the First President of Independent India?
Ans. Rajendra Prasad

Q19. When Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place?
Ans.April 13, 1919

Q20. Who was the viceroy of India when Montague- Chelmsford reforms were introduced?
Ans. Lord Chelmsford

Q21. Whose famous motto was: “Give me blood and I will give you freedom”?
Ans. Subhas Chandra Bose

Q22. Among the following leaders who was appointed as the viceroy of Independent India?
Ans. Lord Mountbatten

Q23. Who wrote the National Anthem of India?
Ans. Rabindranath Tagore

Q24. When was the English East India Company established?
Ans.1600 A.D

Q25. Who was the Governor General of India when the first war of India’s independence broke out in 1857?
Ans. Lord Canning

Q26. Who wrote the book “India’s First War of Independence”?
Ans. Vinayak Samodar Savarkar

Q27. Who was the Lal in Lal, Bal, Pal?
Ans. Lala Lajapathi Rai

Q28. Who created Indian National Army for Indian Independence?
Ans.Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Q29. Who set up the Indian Independence League?
Ans. Rash Bihari Bose

Q30. Who gave the slogan “Dilli Chalo” or “March to Delhi”?
Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose

June 06, 2015

National Movement of India: 1920 to 1940

Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)

(i) A mob of people at Chauri Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5, 1922.
(ii) This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on Feb. 12, 1922.

Simon Commission (1927)

(i) Constituted under John Simon, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy. Indian leaders opposed the commission, as there were no Indians in it.
(ii) The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi-charge. He succumbed to his injuries on Oct. 30, 1928.

Lahore Session (1929)

(i) On Dec. 19, 1929 under the President ship of J. L. Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore Session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence) as its ultimate goal.
(ii) On Dec. 31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and an. 26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be celebrated every year.

Revolutionary Activities

(i) The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar and Balkishan. Their target was Mr. Rand, President of the Plague Commission, but Lt. Ayerst was accidentally shot.
(ii) In 1907, Madam Bhikaiji Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second international).
(iii) In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. Khudiram, Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged (Alipur Case).
(iv) In 1909, M L Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Whyllie, the political advisor of India Office in London.
(v) In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb and Lord Hardinge at Delhi (Delhi Conspiracy Case).
(vi) In Oct, 1924, a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India was called at Kanpur. They setup Hindustan Socialist

Republic Association/Army (HSRA).

(vii) They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug. 9, 1925.
(viii) Bhagat Singh, with his colleagues, shot dead Saunders (Asst. S. P. Of Lahore, who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec. 17, 1928. Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on Apr 8, 1929. Thus, he, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on March. 23, 1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur. In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in Allahabad.


Dandi March (1930)

(i) Also called the Salt Satyagraha.
(ii) Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law.
(iii) He reached the seashore on Apr. 6, 1930.
(iv) He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.

First Round Table conference (1930)

(i) It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on Nov. 12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission.
(ii) Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931)

(i) Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
(ii) The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
(iii) In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference.
(iv) The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast.

Second Round Table Conference (1931)

(i) Gandhi represented the INC and went to London to meet British P. M. Ramsay Macdonald.
(ii) However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo Indians.

The Communal Award (Aug 16, 1932)

(i) Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy of the British.
(ii) Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and even Backward classes.
(iii) Gandhi, who was in Yeravada jail at that time, started a fast unto death against it.

Poona Pact (September 25, 1932)

(i) After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
(ii) Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B. R. Ambedkar and M. C. Rajah became active.
(iii) Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhi broke his fact on the sixth day (Sept 25, 1932).
(iv) In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased.

Third Round Table Conference (1932)

(i) Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.

Demand For Pakistan

(i) In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation.
(ii) Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.
(iii) Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality.
(iv) Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.

June 05, 2015

National Movement of India: 1905 to 1920

Partition of Bengal

(i) By Lord Curzon on Oct 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal.
(ii) The objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims.
(iii) A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition. National movement found real expression in the movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)

(i) Lal, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role.
(ii) INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session, 1905 presided over by G. K. Gokhale.
(iii) Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.

Formation of Muslim League (1906)

(i) Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(ii) It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization which supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement, demanded special safeguards to its community and a separate electorate for Muslims.

Demand for Swaraj

(i) In Dec 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people. Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907):
(ii) The INC split into two groups The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lal while the moderates by G. K. Gokhale.

Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909)

(i) Besides other constitutional measures, it envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.
(ii) Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the Government's side.

Ghadar Party (1913)

(i) Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna.
(ii) HQ was at San Francisco.

Home Rule Movement (1916)

(i) Started by B. G. Tilak (April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S. Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (Sept, 1916).
(ii) Objective: Self government for India in the British Empire.
(iii) Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language. He gave the slogan: Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.

Lucknow Pact (1916)

(i) Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims.
(ii) Both INC and Muslim League concluded this (Congress accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country).

August Declaration (1917)

(i) After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced which aimed at increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire. This came to be called the August Declaration.

Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919)

(i) This gave unbridled powers to the govt. To arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
(ii) Caused a wave of anger in all sections. It was the first country-wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non Cooperation Movement.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919)

(i) People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 10, 1919.
(ii) General O'Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
(iii) As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and thousands injured.
(iv) Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy's Executive Council after this. Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it.
(v) On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O'Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.

Khilafat Movement (1920)

(i) Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War.
(ii) Two brothers, Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement.

Non-cooperation Movement (1920)

(i) It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.
(ii) Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in Sept 1920.

June 04, 2015

30 Quiz Questions Everyone Should Know

1. VAT is imposed–
(A) Directly on consumer (B) On final stage of production
(C) On first stage of production (D) On all stages between production and final sale

Answer: On all stages between production and final sale


2. Which of the following is considered lending for promotion of exports?

(A) Packing Credit (B) Overdraft (C) Cash Credit Account (D) Bill Discounting

Answer: Packing Credit


3. The largest source of National Income in India is–

(A) Service Sector (B) Agriculture (C) Industrial Sector (D) Trade Sector

Answer: Service Sector


4. ‘Public Sector’ means–

(A) Government ownership on commerce and trade 
(B) Capitalist ownership on commerce and trade
(C) Private ownership on trade 
(D) None of the above

Answer: Government ownership on commerce and trade


5. UNDP has introduced a new poverty index known as–

(A) Human Poverty Index (B) Poorest among Poor Index
(C) Social Poverty Index (D) Multi-dimensional Poverty Index

Answer: Multi-dimensional Poverty Index


6. As per Census 2011, Kerala holds the maximum sex-ratio among states which stands at–

(A) 1046 (B) 1084 (C) 1092 (D) 1103

Answer: 1084


7. As on August 15, 2014 the numbers of ‘Maharatna’ and ‘Navratna’ public sector companies in the country are :

(A) 6 and 14 respectively (B) 7 and 15 respectively
(C) 6 and 16 respectively (D) 7 and 17 respectively

Answer: 7 and 17 respectively


8. Which pair is not correct?

(A) EXIM Bank – Financing for export-import (B) RBI-Banker’s bank
(C) IDBI – Industrial finance (D) FCI – Financial assistance to commercial institutions

Answer: FCI – Financial assistance to commercial institutions


9. Which constitutes the maximum share in power generation?

(A) Thermal Power (B) Hydro Power (C) Atomic Power (D) All the above have equal share

Answer: Thermal Power


10. The regulator of Micro Finance in India is–

(A) Finance Ministry (B) Reserve Bank of India (C) State Bank of India (D) None of the above

Answer: None of the above


11. Rekhi Committee was constituted in 1992 which was associated with–

(A) Indirect taxes (Excise and Custom duty) regulations (B) Change in Banking Structure
(C) Security Scam (D) None of the above

Answer: Indirect taxes (Excise and Custom duty) regulations


12. Petroleum Ministry has raised the cap of subsidized LPG cylinders–

(A) From 6 to 9 (B) From 6 to 12 (C) From 9 to 12 (D) Made unlimited

Answer: From 9 to 12


13. The concept of Rolling Plan was emerged during period–

(A) 1971 to 1978 (B) 1980 to 1985 (C) 1978 to 1980 (D) 1992 to 1997

Answer: 1978 to 1980


14. The current Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) after Monetary Policy Review of RBI on August 5, 2014 is–

(A) 3.5% (B) 3.75% (C) 4.0% (D) 4.25%

Answer: 4.0%


15. As per Union Budget 2014-15, the fiscal deficit target for 2014-15 has been estimated at–

(A) 3.6% of GDP (B) 4.1 % of GDP (C) 4.8% of GDP (D) 5.2% of GDP

Answer: 4.1 % of GDP


16. Which rural sector is not included in ‘Bharat Nirman Yojana’ ?

(A) Irrigation (B) Water supply (C) Education (D) Telephone

Answer: Education


17. As per the provisional data, the India’s merchandise exports during 2013-14 has been estimated at about–

(A) $ 296 billion (B) $ 301 billion (C) $ 312 billion (D) $ 356 billion

Answer: $ 312 billion


18. India has opened an ‘Integrated Check Post’ in Indian territory for promoting bilateral trade with–

(A) Bangladesh (B) Pakistan (C) Nepal (D) China

Answer: Pakistan


19. Forward Markets Commission is a financial regulator of–

(A) Micro Finance (B) Mutual Funds (C) Non-Life Insurance (D) Commodity Future Markets

Answer: Commodity Future Markets


20. Railway Budget in India was separated from general budget in–

(A) 1924-25 (B) 1941-42 (C) 1947-48 (D) 1950-51

Answer: 1924-25


21. National Dairy Plan (Phase I) has been launched to give a boost to milk production in the country. In first phase this plan will cover–

(A) Only Gujarat (B) Only 5 states (C) Only 14 states (D) All states except NE region

Answer: Only 14 states


22. National Rural Health Mission has been launched in the country since–

(A) April 1, 2005 (B) April 12, 2005 (C) April 1, 2006 (D) April 12, 2006

Answer: April 12, 2005


23. World Economic Situation and Prospects Report is associated with–

(A) IMF (B) World Bank (C) United Nations (D) WTO

Answer: United Nations


24. In Union Budget 2014-15 the budget estimate of primary deficit for 2014-15 stood at–

(A) 1.0% of GDP (B) 0.9% of GDP (C) 0.8% of GDP (D) 0.6% of GDP

Answer: 0.8% of GDP


25. Government is going to merge Annapurna Scheme with–

(A) Mid-Day Meal Scheme (B) National Old Age Pension Scheme
(C) National Food for Work Programme (D) Antyodaya Anna Yojana

Answer: National Old Age Pension Scheme


26. Who among the following has been elected as Director General of WTO for the second term in continuation to be started from September 1, 2009 ?

(A) Pascal Lamy (B) Gregory Starr (C) Robert Zoellick (D) Ban Ki-Moon

Answer: Pascal Lamy


27. Which of the bank has launched mobile Point of Sales (PoS), a payment mechanism that uses mobile phone-based GPRS connectivity to facilitate debit/credit card payments?

(A) AXIS Bank (B) ICICI Bank (C) HDFC Bank (D) Yes Bank

Answer: Yes Bank


28. Which of the following superfast trains has AC coach having Braille signals?

(A) Purushottam Express (B) Sramjeevi Express (C) Himgiri Express (D) Tamil Nadu Express

Answer: Purushottam Express


29. Parliament passes Pension Bill which allows Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in pension funds.

(A) 51% (B) 49% (C) 26% (D) 24%
Answer: 26%

30. Which country has recorded the largest increase in its Ultra-High Net Worth Individual (HNIW) club among BRICS nations?

(A) India (B) Brazil (C) Russia (D) China

Answer: India

June 03, 2015

Important Constitutional Amendments in India

The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951

In June 1951, the Constitution (First Amendment) Act was passed, and the following Amendment in the Constitution were inserted : 
(i) To Article 15, a new clause (4) was added: 
(ii) clauses (2) and (6) of Article 19 were recast; 
(iii) After Article 31, Article 31A and 31B were inserted; 
(iv) For Original Article 85, a new Article was substituted; 
(v) In Article 87, clauses (1) and (2) were recast; 
(vi) For the Original Article 174, a new Article was substituted; 
(vii) In Article 176, clauses (1) and (2) were recast:
(viii) Clause (1) of Article 341 was recast; and similarly, clause (1) of Article 342, sub-clause (a) of Article 342, sub clause (a) of clause (3) of Article 372, and clause (1) of Article 376 were also recast; 
(ix) After the Eight Schedule to the Constitution a Ninth Schedule was added and thirteen laws passed by State Legislatures were included in it so that those Acts might not be challenged in courts.
The main purpose of the Amendment was the removal of certain practical difficulties created by court decisions in several cases such as Kameshwar Singh vs. State of Bihar, Romesh Thapar vs. State of Madras, Brij Bhusan vs. State of Delhi and Motilal vs. Government of Uttar Pradesh. The issues involved in these cases were numerous, such as the scope of the fundamental right of freedom of speech, acquisition of Zamindari (land) of intermediaries, conflict between a citizen’s fundamental right to practise any profession, or to carry on any business or trade (Article 19) and state monopoly of any trade, and so on.

The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952

The Second Amendment amended Article 81 in order to remove the prescribed limit of 7,50,000 of the population for one member to be elected to the Lok Sabha. According to the original provision, at least on member was to be elected to the Lok Sabha for every 7,50,000 of the population. It was further provided that the maximum number of elected member to the Lok Sabha should not exceed 500.

The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954

The Third Amendment brought about changes in the Seventh Schedule consisting of the three legislative lists and entry 33 of the Concurrent List was substituted by a new one.

The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955

Article 31 and 31A were amended by the Constitution Fourth Amendment Act. Clause (2) of Article 31 clause (1) of Article 31A were substituted by new clauses as. As a result of these, the adequacy of the quantum of compensation paid for the compulsory acquisition of property for ‘a public purpose’ could not be questioned in a court of law. It also amended Article 305 and the Ninth Schedule.

The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955

The Constitutional Fifth Amendment Act amended Article 3. in the Constitution there was no time limit during which a State Legislature should express its boundaries, which the Centre may like to make. With the help of this amendment is was provided that the State will be required to express its views on such matters within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period, as the President may allow.

The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956

In this Act, the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution was amended and in the Union List, a new entry was added after entry 92 in the State List, a new entry was substituted for entry 54. it also amended Articles 269 and 286 dealing with inter-state Sales-tax.

The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956

The Seventh Amendment brought about the most comprehensive changes so fair in the Constitution. This amendment was designed to implement the State Reorganisation Act. The Second and Seventh schedules were substantially amended for the purpose of the States Reorganization Act.

The Constitution (Eight Amendment) Act, 1959

The Act extended the period of reservation seats in Lok Sabha and State Legislatures for the Anglo-Indians, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by another 10 years.

The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960

It provided for the transfer of certain territories of India to Pakistan under and agreement between India and Pakistan as a part of a comprehensive settlement of border disputes between the two countries.

The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961

The Tenth Amendment integrates the areas of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Union of India and provides for their administration under the regulation making powers of the President.

The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961

It amends Article 71 so as to make it clear that the election of the President or the Vice-President shall not be challenges on the ground of any vacancy for whatever reason in the appropriate electoral college. It also obviates the necessity of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament (Article 66) by constituting them into an electoral college for the election of the Vice-President.

The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962

The main object of the Amendment was to add Union Territories of Goa, Daman and Diu to the Union of India and for this First Schedule of the Constitution was amended.

The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962

The Act provides the creation of Nagaland as the Sixteenth State of the Union. The Amendment provides also for the vesting of certain special responsibilities in the Governor of Nagaland.

The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962

The amendment provides for the incorporation of the former French Establishments in India, under the name Pondicherry, as an integral part of the territory of the Indian Union. it also amended Article 31 to increase, from a maximum 20 to 25, the number of seats assigned in the Lok Sabha for the Union Territories.

The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963

The amendment raised the retirement age of High Court. Judge from 60 to 62 years. It also empowered the various High Courts to hear cases against to the Union Government.

The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963

The Act seeks to enable Parliament to make laws provident penalty for any person questioning the sovereignty and integrity of India. Under the provisions of the this Amendment, a person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in Parliament or in the Legislature of State unless, inter-alia, he maker or subscribes before a person authorised by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation that he will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution and will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India.

The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964

The Act amend the definition of the term ‘estate’ in Article 31A to include lands held under ryotwari settlement and also other lands in respect of which provisions are normally made in land reform enact-ments. It also amends the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to include therein 44 State enactment relation to land reforms in order to remove any uncertainty or dobut that may arise with regard to their validity.

The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966

The amendment provides for the creation of new States, namely, Punjab and Haryana as a result of the reorganisation of the former State of Punjab and the Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh.

The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966

The Act modified Article 324 so as to terminate the jurisdiction of election tribunals to decide election disputes. The Amendment withdrew from the Election Commission the power of setting up election tribunals.

The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966

The Act inserts a new Article 233A immediately after Article 233 in order to validate the appointment of District Judges, which might not have conformed fully to the different Constitutional requirements, which were in existent prior to 1966.

The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967

It amended the Eight Schedule to the Constitution by including ‘Sindhi’ therein.

The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969

The amendment conferred legislative power on Parliament for the purpose of creating and autonomous Hill State within the State of Assam. Accordingly, Parliament passed the Assam Reorganization (Meghalaya) Act 1969 to set up the State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam.

The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969

It deals with the questions of reservation of seat in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indian and further extend the period of reservation by another ten years, which means in effect thirty years from the commencement of the Constitution.

The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971

It amends Article 13 and 368 with a view to removing all possible doubts regarding the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure thereof. It gets over the Golak Nath ruling and asserts the power of Parliament, denied to in the Golak Nath, to amend fundamental rights.

The Constitution (Twenty-fifth) Amendment Act, 1971

The 25th amendment of the Constitution in 1971 added a new clause, Article 31C to the Constitution. Upto 1971, the position was that fundamental rights prevailed over the directive principles of State Policy and that a law enacted to implement a directive principle could not be valid if it conflicted with a fundamental right. Article 31C sought to change this relationship to some extent by conferring primacy on Articles 39(b) and 39(c) over Articles 14, 19 and 31.

June 02, 2015

18 Wars of Medieval India - Battles that changed destiny of India

First Battle of Tarain (1191)

This battle was fought at Tarain near Thaneswar. Prithviraj of Chauhan Dynasty defeated the Mohammad of Ghori.

Second Battle of Tarain(1192)

It was fought at same Tarain battlefield as in the first Tarain battle. This was fought by Mohammad Ghori against Prithvi Raj Chauhan. This time Prithvi Raj was defeated. Mohammad got the opportunity to enter Indian lands.

Battle of Chandawar(1194)

In this battle Jaichandra,King of Kanauj was defeated by Mohammad Ghori. Mohammad further extended his empire in India by defeating a large kingdom.

First Battle of Panipat(21-April-1526)

In this battle Babur defeated the Army of Afghans and killed their king Ibrahim Lodi.By this victory Babur got opportunity to expand his small principality into big empire

Battle of Khanwa(17-March-1527)

Rajputs under Rana of Mewar Rana Sanga, were defeated by Babur of Ferghana. Rana Sanga was wounded in the battlefield.

Battle of Chanderi(1528)

Medini Rai of Chanderi was defeated by Babur.

Battle of Ghagra or Ghagra(6-May-1529)

Babur defeated and dispersed Afghans.

Battle of Chausal (7-June-1539)

Sher shah defeated the mughals, but Humayun, the king escaped by crossing over the river.

Battle of Kanauj or Billgram (17-May-1540)

Sher shah won against Humayun. Agra was occupied by Sher shah

Battle for Delhi (7 October 1556)

King 'Hem Chandra Vikramaditya' defeated Akbar's forces in Delhi.

Second Battle of Panipat(5-November-1556)

Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) was defeated by Mughals under Akbar. Akbar reoccupied Delhi.

Battle of Bannihatti or Tallikota(23-January-1565)

Unified Army of five Deccan Sultanates(Ali adilshah and four others) defeated the Vijayanagara Army and Vijayanagara General Ramaraju was killed in the battlefield.

Battle of Haldighati(1576)

This was started between Akbar and Rana of Mewar Pratap. Decisive Mughal victory.

First Carnatic War(1745–48)

This war was fought by British and French armies. French occupied Madras, later returned it to British.

Second Carnatic War(1749–54)

French army under the of Duplex fought with British and British won. In 1755 they made a provisional treaty. French loss their expanding opportunities and continued as trading community in India.

Third Carnatic War(1756–63)

In 1758 French occupied Fort Saint David. But defeated at Wandiwasi(1760). Britishers won.

Battle of Plassey

Battle of Plassey(June-1757)

British Army under the command of Rober Clive fought with Bengal Nawab Siraz-ud-daula and British won and Mir Jafar was made Nawab. Siraz-ud-daula,while he was unarmed was killed mercilessly by Muhammad Beg,a person who was under his assylum.

Battle of Buxar(1764)

British army under the command of Major Manri defeated the combined army of Mir Kasim nawab of Bengal, Shuja-ud-daulah nawab of Awadh, Sha Alam, Mughal emperor

June 01, 2015

42 Bharat Ratna Recipients - know why they are most deserving

Bharat Ratna is highest civilian award in India, which started in 1954. It is given in any field of human endeavour. Prime Minister and President of India can recommend a name for Bharat Ratna. Find out Bharat Ratna Award Winners List below and their achievements and some facts as well.

Bharat Ratna

Bharat Ratna Award Winners List 

1. C. Rajagopalachari in 1954

First recipient of Bharat Ratna. He was an Independence activist, also last and only Indian Governor-General of India.

2. Sir C V Raman 1954

Sir CV Raman was awarded Bharat Ratna in the same year it was started. He is Nobel laureate physicist (1930) and one of the most popular scientist in world.

3. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1954

Dr. Radhakrishnan also received Bharat Ratna in first year itself. He was a great Philosopher, India’s first Vice-President (1952–62), and second President (1962–67). He was awarded Bharat Ratna when while he was Vice President of India (Vice President of India have no role in Bharat Ratna decisions.)

4. Bhagwan Das 1955

Bhagwan Das was an Independence activist, theosophist, and founder of Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith.

5. Visvesvaraya 1955

He was most notable Engineer of India. Visvesvaraya was a Civil engineer, Diwan of Mysore (1912–18), and Knight Commander of the Indian Empire.

6. Jawaharlal Nehru 1955

Pandit Nehru was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1955 when he was Prime Minister of India. He was an Independence activist, author, and first Prime Minister of India (1947–64). (PM of India is the one who confirms Bharat Ratna Winner)

7. Govind Ballabh Pant 1957

Govind Ballabh Pant was an Independence activist, first Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh (1950–54)

8. Dr Dhondo Keshav Karve 1958

Dr. Karve was a highly regarded and one of the most notable social Reformer of India.

9. Bidhan Chandra Roy 1961

A Physician-Surgeon and second Chief Minister of West Bengal (1948–62)

10. Purushottam Das Tandon 1961

Purushottam Das Tandon was an Independence activist and educator.

11. Rajendra Prasad 1962

Dr. Rajendra Prasad received Bharat Ratna in 1962 after his tenure as President of India came to an end. He was an Independence activist, lawyer and first President of India (1950–62).

12. Zakir Hussain 1963

An Independence activist, second Vice-President of India (1962–67), and third President of India (1967–69). Received Bharat Ratna while he was Vice President of India.

13. Pandurang Vaman Kane 1963

An Indologist and notable Sanskrit scholar.

14. Lal Bahadur Shastri 1966

He was an Independence activist and third Prime Minister of India (1964–66). Received Bharat Ratna after his sudden death in 1966.

15. Indira Gandhi 1971

Indira Gandhi was Former Prime Minister of India (1966–77, 1980–84). She received Bharat Ratna when she was Prime Minister of India.

16. V. V. Giri 1975

Trade unionist, first Acting President of India, and fourth President of India (1969–74).

17. K. Kamaraj 1976

Independence activist and former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (1954–57, 1957–62, 1962–63)

18. Mother Teresa 1980

Mother Teresa was Catholic nun, founder of the Missionaries of Charity and Nobel peace prize laureate (1979). She was first recipient of Bharat Ratna who was not an Indian citizen. She received Bharat Ratna right after she won Noble Peace Prize.

19. Vinoba Bhave 1983

An Independence activist, social reformer, and Ramon Magsaysay Award laureate (1958)

20. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan 1987

An Independence activist who fought for India’s freedom.

21. M. G. Ramachandran 1988

Film actor and former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and founder of AIADMK political party. (1977–80, 1980–84, 1985–87)

22. B. R. Ambedkar 1990

Dr Ambedkar was Chief architect of the Indian Constitution and social reformer.

23. Nelson Mandela 1990

Leader of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1993). Another recipient who was not Indian Citizen.

24. Rajiv Gandhi 1991

Rajiv Gandhi was given Bharat Ratna after his assassination in 1991. He was Ninth Prime Minister of India (1984–89)

25. Vallabhbhai Patel 1991

An Independence activist and first Deputy Prime Minister of India(1947–50)

26. Morarji Desai 1991

Morarji Deasi was an Independence activist and sixth Prime Minister of India (1977–79). He was first Non Congress Leader to becom India’s Prime Minister.

27. Abul Kalam Azad 1992

An Independence activist who was given Bharat Ratna in 1992

28. J. R. D. Tata 1992

A notable Industrialist and philanthropist, who served as the chairman of Tata Group and also founded Air India.

29. Satyajit Ray 1992

One of the most notable Filmmaker of India and Oscar Award winner (Life Time Achievement award in 1991)

30. Gulzarilal Nanda 1997

Gulzarilal Nanda was an Independence activist and two times interim Prime Minister of India.

31. Aruna Asaf Ali 1997

Aruna Asaf was an Independence activist. She is widely remembered for hoisting the Indian National Congress flag at the Gowalia Tank maidan in Bombay during the Quit India Movement, 1942.

32. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 1997

Dr. Kalam was an Aerospace and Defense Scientist and eleventh President of India (2002–07). He received Bharat ratna 5 year before being President.

33. M. S. Subbulakshmi 1998

M. S. Subbulakshmi was a Carnatic classical vocalist.

34. Chidambaram Subramaniam 1998

An Independence activist and former Minister of Agriculture of India durin lal Bahadur Shastri government. (1964–66)

35. Jayaprakash Narayan 1999

An Independence activist and social reformer of India who raised voice against Indira government and started Total Revolution movement.

36. Ravi Shankar 1999

A notable and most famous Hindustani classical Sitar player.

37. Amartya Sen 1999

Amartya Sen was a Nobel laureate economist (1998) who recived Bharat Ratna after winning Nobel prize.

38. Gopinath Bordoloi 1999

An Independence activist and first Chief Minister of Assam (1946–50)

39. Lata Mangeshkar 2001

Most popular female Playback singer of India

40. Bismillah Khan 2001

Bismillah Khan was a Hindustani classical Shehnai player

41. Bhimsen Joshi 2009

Pandit Bhimsen Joshi received Bharat Ratna in 2009. He was a Hindustani classical vocalist

42. Sachin Tendulkar 2013

Most celebrated Cricketer in the world and most popular sports person of India.

43. C. N. R. Rao 2013

Dr. Rao is a notable Chemist who has published more than 1400 papers.

44. Madan Mohan Malaviya 2014

An Indian educationist and politician and Independence activist. He was the founder of Banaras Hindu University.

45. Atal Bihari Vajpayee 2014

An Independence activist, Former Prime Minister of India (1996), (1998), (1999-2004) and a poet

May 02, 2015

12 Objective Questions With Full Explanation from Indian History

1. Where is the pre-historic grain producing site of Mehargarh located?
(a) On the banks of Ghaggar river
(b) In eastern Rann of Kachchh
(c) On the edge of Bolan river
(d) In western Baluchistan

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Pre-historic grain producing site of Mehargarh located in ewstern Baluchistan province of pakistan. It is near the Bolen pass. Mehargarh is also Credited with beginning of agriculture. It is the pre-Harappan agriculture sites.
. People grew wheat and barley
. Tended sheeps and goats
Various kinds of beads made of stones seals and sealings

Source: The History & Culture of Ancient India-K.C.Srivastava.


2. The Harappans had commercial links with Mesopotamia.
Reason (R) Many Harappan seals have been discovered in Mesopotamia.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true

Answer: (a)

Explanation: The Harappans had commericial contact with Mesopotamian cities certain, Harappan seals and other objects found in Mesopotamian cities like susa and indicate the existence of a trading settlement in Mesopotamian. So both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are individually true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of assertion (A).So answer is option (a).

Source: History of Ancient India - Jha & Srimali.

3. With reference to the Harappan civilization consider the following statements.
A. The city of Dholavire was in the form of a parallelogram guarded by a fortification.
B. A ploughed-field, showing a grid of furrows. located outside the town wall has been discovered at kalibangan.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) A only
(b) B only
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B

Answer. (c)

Explanation: The city of dholavira was in the form of a parallelogram guarded by a fortification. Some facts about Dholavira are as follows:
. Situated in Gujarat in Kutch district.
. Discovered by J.P.Joshi, excavation carried out by R.S. Bist in 1990-91.
. Latest site discovered in India.
. One of the largest sites of the Harappan civilization.
. Entire city was divided into three parts instead of two as usual the citadel, the middle town and the lower town.
. An alphabet of hine pictogaphic letters.
. A ploughed-field showing a grid of furrows located outside the town-wall has been discovered at kalibangan. Some facts about kalibangan are :
. Situated in Ganganagar district of Rajasthan.
. Excavated by A Ghosh in 1953 and termed it as sothi Culture.
. Riverrine location o.n the left bank of the river Ghaggar
. Evidence of proto Harappan and Harappen phase.
. Both the citedel and the lower town were forified.
. Literal meaning 'Black Bangles'
. House built mostly sun dried bricks.
. Furrow field (evidence of ploughing)
. Fire altars (Fire Cult) and copper bull
. A cylindricae seal and a bangle factory
. Citedel wall of mud-bricks
. Two gateways - North and South.

Source: Ancient History - NCERT.

4. In which one of the following Indus Valley sites has the sign board inscription been found?
(a) Rakhigarhi
(b) Dholavira
(c) Kalibangan
(d) Amri

Answer. (b)

Explanation: The sign board inscription has found in Dholavira of Indus Valley sites. A sign board inscription has been found fallen near the entry gate of holavira.
Source: The History of culture of Ancient India _ K.C.Srivastava

5. The katha Upanishad belongs to which one of the following?
(a) Rig Veda
(b) Sama Veda
(c) Yajur Veda
(d) Atharva Veda

Answer: (c)

Explanation: The katha Upanishad belongs to Yajur veda.
Literal meaning of Upanishad is 'session' in which the mentor imports escoteric teachings.
First section to Brahminical dominance appeared to wards the end of Vedic period especially in the land of the Panchala and Videha were around 600 BC, the Upanishad were combined.
. Upanishad thought centres aroudn the idea of soul (Atma) and not sacrifice.
. Deeds of one life affected of the next. This gave the theory of karina.
. By the time of Upanishads asceticism became fairly wide spread.
. Deals with philosophy of Metaphysics.
. Known as Vedanta meaning "The end of the Vedas" for they denote the last phasw of the Vedic period and reveal the ultimate of the Vedas.
. They are 108 in numbers.
. The earliest Upanishads are 'Brihadaranyaka' and 'Chanddogya' written in prose.
. The latter Upanishad like 'Katha' and 'Svetas Vatera' are written in verse form.
. Advocates salvation through knowledge (Lsyonamarga) realization rather than works as faith.
Source:  Ancient India - NCERT

6. Consider the following statements:
A Enslavement in lieu of uncleared debt was unknown from Vedic times to the time of Buddha.
B. in Vedic times, women of higher castes could neither hold property nor remarry after husband's death.
which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) A only
(b) B only
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B

Answer. (d)

Explanation: Enslavement in lieu of uncleared debt was known in time of Buddha and in vedic time.
Source: Ancient India - NCERT

7. Consider the following statements:
A. Rig Veda gives elaborate details of the king's administration of justice.
B. Atharva Veda mentions garments (dursa) and goat-skin (ajina) as articles of trade.
which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) A only
(b) B only
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B

Answer. (b)

Explanation: Rig Veda has no details of the king's administration of justice. Atharva Veda mentions garments (dussa) and goat skin (afina) as asticles of trade.
Source: Wonder that was India _ A.L. Basham

8. How were Upadesa sastras and Vibhasha sastras, the elaborate commentaries on the Buddhist sacred texts, prepared?
(a) They were prepared under the leadership of moggaliputta Tissa in the Buddhist Council held under Asoka's patronage
(b) They were prepared in the fourth buddhist council held under the patronage of kanishka.
(c) Nagasena prepared them under the patronage of milinda
(d) Vattagamani Abhaya organised a conference of great monks and got them prepared

Answer. (b)

Explanation: In the beginning of Ist century AD, Upadesha shastras and Vibhasha shastras, the elaborate commentaries on the buddhist sacred texts were written at 4 th buddhist council royal patronage of kanishka (Ist-2nd Century A.D.) Vasumitra was the president of the council.
Sarvastivadin dictrines were codified in a summary, the Mahavibhasha.
It was chiefoy among Sarvastivadin and also the old schism of the Mahasanghika that new ideas between into creates and lesser vehicle, (Mahayana and Hinayanna).
Source: Ancient History - S.K.Pandey, page 222 Ancient History- NCERT.

9.Who of the following shared the hardship of penance for six years with Mahavira during his search for ultimate knowledge?
(a) Ajita Kesakambalin
(b) Paduka katyayana
(c) Purana kassapa
(d) Gosala Mankhaliputta

Answer. (d)

Explanation: Mankhaliputta Gosala Shared hardship of penance for six years with Mahavira. After separation he founded the Ajivak sect. He was supposed to be real founder of Hiyativad Heterodox philosophy. His followers are known as Ajivikas. In the philosophy, some important facts are following:
Followers are also known as Sanyasins.
The doctrine of the founder of the sect, Gosala Man khaliputta be as a generic likeness to those of his contemporary and former friend, Mahavira.
The sect was definitely athestic, and its main feature was strict determinism.
Source: Ancient India - jha & Srimali.

10. In the ancient Indian sculpture, Who of the following is shown symbolically as an empty throne?
(a) Rama
(b) Buddha
(c) Surya
(d) Mahavira

Answer. (b)

Explanation: Before the Kushan period, the Buddha was shown as symbolically as an empty in Indian sculpture.
Source: Wonder that was india _ A.L.Basham.

11. In which one of the following does the word 'gotra' first appear with the meaning of 'a clan'?
(a) Rig Veda
(b) Atharva Veda
(c) Aitareya Brahmana
(d) Arthshastra

Answer. (b)

Explanation: The word 'gotra' first apppear with the meaning of a 'a clan' in Rig Veda. In early Vedic period, it is an exogamopus institutional body. In early Vedic times the term meant a cow.pen or a 'herd of cattle'. It was transferred to the group of people who were commo.n owners of the herd. Later, when the unit of common holding become the joint patriarchal family, the 'gotra' come to mean the family as well as the clan. The term is often mentioned in Rig Veda within which according to the Grihya sutra marriages are prohigited, as with the bride-gotra insciption found. The persons belonging to the same 'gotra' are known as sagotra.
Source: Wonder that was India _ A.L. Basham.

12. Consider the following statements:
A. The epic Mahabharata has supplement called Hari-vamsa.
B. Markandeya purana is one of the oldest puranas and gives attention to Vedic deities like Indra, Agni and Surya.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) A only
(b) B only
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B

Answer: (c)

Explanation: There are a supplment of the epic Mahabharata called Hari-vamsa. There are 108 Puranas in which Markandea Purana is one of the oldest Puranas and gives attention to Vedic deities like India, Agni and Surya.
Source: Ancient India - NCERT.