April 06, 2015

Drain of Wealth - British Colonialism and Economic Impact

Meaning of Drain of Wealth


  • The drain of wealth was typically “a phenomenon of colonial rule.” The person to draw pointed attention to this drain of resources from India to England was Dadabhai Naoroji in his book Povrty and Un-British Rule in India (1871).
  • Dadabhai tried to prove that mass poverty in India was a direct consequence, among other reasons, of drain of wealth (resources) from India to England.

Drain of Wealth
Drain of Wealth

Forms of Drain of Wealth


  • Remittances to England by Company employees:
  • For support of families and education of children.
  • Of saving from earnings.
  • For purchase of British goods for consumption in India.
  • Government purchase of stores manufactured in Britain.
  • Interest charges on public debt held in Britain (excluding interest payments on railway loans and debts incurred for productive works).

‘Home Charges’ included:


  • India Office expenses including pensions to retired officials.
  • Interest on public debt raised in England at comparatively higher rates;
  • Annuities on account of railway and irrigation works;
  • Payments in connection with civil departments where Englishmen were employed;


Estimate of Drain of Wealth


  • Within just five years after Battle of Plassey, goods and bullion worth 4.94 million pounds. During 1757-80 amount of drain on Bengal’s resources alone was 38 million pounds.
  • One-fourth of all revenues in India came to be annually remitted to England as Home Charges alone.


British Colonialism and Economic Impact

British colonialism passed through three stages, each stage representing a different pattern of subordination of colony and consequently different colonial policies, ideologies, impact and colonial people’s response. Change from one stage to another was due partly to changes in metropolis itself and partly to changes in colonies. Three stages are not strictly bound. But each stage has some main features, though features of earlier one may continue into later one. Again some stags are atrophied in some colonies, e.g. third stage in India.

First Stage of Mercantilism (1757-1813)


  • Monopoly of trade and direct appropriation of revenue.
  • Very strong element of plunder and direct seizure of power.
  • Absence of large-scale import of British goods.
  • No basic changes in colony’s administration, judiciary, culture, economy, etc.


Second Stage of Laissez Faire (1813-60)


  • Determination of administrative policies and economic structure of colony by interests of industrial bourgeoisie of metropolis.
  • Making colony a subordinate trading partner which would export raw materials and import manufactured goods.
  • Transformation of colony’s economy, polity, administration, society, culture and ideology under guise of development and modernization in order to exploit it in new and more sophisticated way.


Third Stage of Finance Imperialism (1860-1947)


  • Intense struggle for new, secure and exclusive markets and for sources of raw materials among industrialized countries.
  • Export of capital by these countries to colonies.
  • Replacement of liberal imperialist policies by reactionary ones in administration of colonies.

April 04, 2015

General Geography Compendium - Earth for Competitive Exams


  1. Shape of Earth can be best described as --- Geoid
  2. Earth's rotational velocity at equator is -- 1690 km/hr
  3. A solar day is greater than a sidereal day by -- 4 minute
  4. Point in the orbit of Moon when it's farthest from Earth -- Apogee
  5. Each degree of latitude equals -- 111 km
  6. A person crossing International Date Line from East to West -- loses one day
  7. The sun is vertically overhead at the equator on -- March 21st (spring equinox)
  8. Prime cause behind Earthquakes -- Dislocation along fault
  9. Elements constituting Earths crust -- Oxygen (46.1%), Silicon (28%), Aluminium (8%), Iron (5%)
  10. Mumbai is 18.55 degree north of equator. Distance wise it equals -- 2059 km
  11. Point on Earth's surface vertically above the seismic focus -- Epicenter
  12. Circum-Pacific belt is called Ring of Fire because -- 80% of volcanic activity of Earth is there
  13. When it's noon in London, the local time for a place 90 degree west of it will be -- 6 am
  14. Lighthouse of the Mediterranean -- Mt. Stromboli
  15. Earth's interior has a layered structure because of -- density differentiation
  16. The intensity of earthquake wave is recorded by -- seismograph
  17. Continental Drift Theory was given by -- Alfred Wegenor
  18. Meridian accepted as the Indian Standard Time -- 82 1/2 degree east
  19. A meteoric crater lake found in India -- Lohar in Maharashtra
  20. Mohorovicic discontinuity separates -- Crust and Mantle
  21. Gigantic seismic sea-waves are called -- Tsunami
  22. Earth's tilted axis causes -- Season
  23. Hardest mineral -- Diamond, and softest mineral -- talc
  24. Theory that considers Earth's lithosphere as fractured along several faults -- Tectonic Plate
  25. Seismic wave transverse in nature which do not pass through molten outer core -- s wave
  26. Gutenberg discontinuity separates -- mantle and core
  27. Theory that explains Earthquakes -- elastic rebound theory
  28. Earth's magnetic north and south poles are located on -- Prince of Wales Island in North Canada
  29. Layer beneath the lithosphere capable of flowing under stress -- Asthenosphere
  30. IST is ahead of GMT by -- 5 hrs 30 minutes
  31. Line joining places that experience earthquake at the same time -- Homoseismal line
  32. The only active volcano in India -- Barron, Andaman and Nicobar
  33. Seismic wave that cause maximum destruction -- L wave
  34. The antipodal point of 10 degree North 125 degree East is -- 10 degree South 55 degree West
  35. The equatorial bulge on Earth is due to -- centrifugal force
  36. Magnitude of an earthquake is measured on -- Richter Scale
  37. Earth is round was first theorised by -- Plato
  38. The recent earthquake in Gujarat occurred due to -- dislocation along all Allahbund fault in Sindh, Pakistan

April 03, 2015

Vision set forth in the Indian Constitution

The Preamble of Indian Constitution as the source of vision:

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution:

It is the introductory statement that provide briefly the objectives of the constitution, The Preamble provides guidance to the representatives of the people in their task. It gives expression to the aspirations of the Indian people,

We, the people of India:

The Preamble of Indian Constitution commence with the word 'We, the people of India' - it refers that the constitution derives its authority from the people of India. The final source of all power are people of India.

India is sovereign:

Before independence, we were governed by the laws made by the British rulers. There is no such foreign control over us now. We can frame our laws without any external interference. Our head of the State is the President of India, who is elected and not appointed. The sovereignty rest in the people of India who are ultimate master of their own destiny.

India is democratic:

The great thinker and President of USA, Abraham Lincoln (1861-65 CE)  defined democracy as the 'government of the people, by the people, and for the people. In our country, it is through our elected representatives that the state policies are made and implemented for the welfare of our people.

India is a Republic:

In a Republic system no external authority has any say in the affairs of the country. Before the independence, the queen and king of Britain happened to be the constitutional head of India. But with the introduction of our constitution, we have become the republic and our elected representatives in the parliament and state legislature have equal freedom.

India is Secular:

In India, the law of the state do not show discrimination for any particular religious group. The freedom to follow a faith of one's choice is guaranteed in the constitution. In the term of employment, no restrictions can be imposed on the basis of a person's religion.

Secularism denote equal regard for religious sentiments of all people, all people have freedom to follow any religion in India. Secularism means that all are free to profess or preach the faith of their liking.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the principal architect of constitution was of the view that, "Secular does no mean that the state shall not take into consideration religious sentiments of the people. The secular state means that the parliament shall not impose any particular religion upon the people."

Secularism treats all religions on equal footing, and accepts freedom of religion.
Secularism believes in religious co-existence and people following different religions  can live side by side.

Regarding secularism the following articles exist in the Indian Constitution:

  • Article  15: The State does not discriminate against any citizen on ground of any religion. All citizens have equal access to shops, tanks, wells, and public place.
  • Article 25 (1): All citizen are equally free to follow any religion of their choice,
  • Article 27: No person can be made to pay any tax for the promotion of any religion.
  • Article 28 (1): No religious instruction can be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of state funds.
  • Article 29 (1): On religious ground no citizen can be denied admission to any educational institution maintained by the state or receiving aid out of state funds.
  • Article 30: It gives right to establish educational institutions to religious and linguistic minorities based on religion or language. It also prohibits any discrimination in grant of aid to any educational institution run by a religious minority.


India is Socialist:

Our constitution aims at establishing socialist society. Indian Constitution providing measures through which economic disparities may be diminished. It does not mean that government intend to make the rich people poor. The intention is to raise the standard of living of people who are economically backward. There are special provision in the constitution that allow the government to make legislation for protecting the interest of the weaker section of the society.

Economic justice is ensured through provisions like minimum wage and equal opportunities for employment in commercial organizations.

Political justice means that there is a liberty to make any political vision. There is a liberty to have any political view but they must not go against the interest of nation as a whole. Similarly, there is the freedom to vote for any recognized political party in the country.

Liberty and Equality:

The Constitution provides that no citizen shall be deprived of this freedom. There can be no detention without proper authority of law. There is also the freedom of expression and speech. Equal opportunities are ensured to all citizen for their fullest development.

Fraternity:

The constitution intends to promote the feeling of mutual feeling of brotherhood among all the citizen.

Liberty, fraternity and equality are inter-relation. It is only when all citizen are free and bound by a feeling of brotherhood for each other. Equality before law and feeling of brotherhood for each other alone, can ensure that there will be real freedom.

The constitution provides that all men are born equal and free. So it guarantees to them these basic freedoms.

April 01, 2015

Egyptian Art

Ancient Egyptian Art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 BCE to 300 CE. Ancient Egyptian Art reached a high level in painting and sculpture, and was both highly stylized and symbolic. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of past.

Egyptian folk art often has eyes in it as a symbol of the goods watching upon the pharaohs. In a more narrow sense, Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2nd and 3rd Dynasty art developed in Egypt from 3000 BCE and used until the 3rd century. Most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over that 3000 year period with relatively little outside influence. The quality of observation and execution started at a high level and remained near the level throughout the period.

Interesting information about Egyptian Art:

Symbolism:
Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the pharaoh's regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, is omnipresent in Egyptian art.

Colors were more expressive rather than natural: red skin implied vigorous tanned youth, where yellow skin was used for women or middle aged men who worked indoors; blue or gold indicated divinity because of its unnatural appearance and association with precious materials; the use of black for royal figures expressed the fertility of the Nile from which Egypt was born. Stereotype were employed to indicate the geographical origins of foreigners.

Art forms:
Ancient Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of Gods, human beings, heroic battles, and nature, and were intended to provide solace to the deceased in the afterlife. Artists endeavored to preserve everything from the present as clearly and permanently as possible. Ancient Egyptian art was created using medium ranging from papyrus drawings to pictographs (hieroglyphics) and include funerary sculpture carved in relief and in the round form sandstone, quartz diorite and granite. 

Ancient Egyptian art displays an extraordinarily vivid representation of the Ancient Egyptian socioeconomic status and belief system. Egyptian art in all form obeyed one law: the mode of representing Pharaoh, gods, man, nature and the environment remained consistent for thousands of years. The most admired artists were those who replicated the stylized depictions of Egypt most vegetated figure; humanity or divinity.

Wall painting of Nefertari:
All Egyptian reliefs were painted, and less prestigious works in tombs, temples and palaces were just painted on a flat surface. Stone surfaces were prepared by whitewash, or if rough, a layer of coarse mud plaster, with a smoother gesso layer above; some finer limestones could take paint directly. Pigments were mostly mineral, chosen to withstand strong sunlight without fading. The binding medium used in painting remains unclear: egg tempera and various gums and resins have been suggested. It is clear that true fresco, painted into a thin layer of wet plaster, was not used. Instead the paint was applied to dried plaster, in what is called "fresco a secco" in Italian. 

After painting, a varnish or resin was usually applied as a protective coating, and many painting with some exposure to the elements have survived remarkably well, although those on fully exposed walls rarely have. Small objects including wooden statuettes were often painted using similar techniques.

Many ancient Egyptian paintings have survived due to Egypt's extremely dry climate. The paintings were often made with the intent of making a pleasant afterlife for the decreased.

March 31, 2015

20 Awesome MCQs for UPSC covering Population, Human Development and Migration

1. Which one of the following is not correct ?
(a)Growth is quantitative and value neutral.
(b) Development means a qualitative change which is always value positive.
(c) Positive growth and development refer to changes over a period of time.
(d) Both growth and development refer to changes over a period of time.

Answer (c) Positive growth and development refer to changes over a period of time.

Exp :- Development occurs when positive growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does not always lead to development. Development occurs when there is a positive change in quality. Hence, correct answer is option (c)

2. Which one of the following introduced the concept of Human Development?
(a)Paul Krugman.
(b) Dr. Mahbub-Ul-Haq.
(c) Prof. Amartya Sen.
(d) Ratzel.

Answer (b) Dr. Mahbub-Ul-Haq.

Exp.:- Pakistani economist Dr. Mahubub-Ul-Haq introduced the concept of Human Development Index in 1990 According to him, development is all about enlarging people’s choices in order to lead long healthy lives with dignity. The United Nations Development Programme has used his concept of Human Development to publish the Human. Development Report annually since 1990. Hence, the correct answer is option (b)

3. The Human Development Index (HDI) ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of .....
1. Health.
2. Sex- ratio.
3. Education.
4. Access to resources.
Code:
(a)1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2 and 4 only

Answer (c) 1, 3 and 4 only

Exp:- The Human Development Index (HDI) ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of health, education and access to resources. The indicator chosen to assess health is the life expectancy at birth. The adult literacy rate and the gross enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge. Access to resources is measured in terms of purchasing power (in U.S dollars). Hence, the correct answer is option (c)

4. With reference to Human Development Index (HDI), consider the following statements:
1. HDI ranking are based on a score between 0 to 1.
2. Each dimension of HDI is given a weightage of 1/3.
Which of the above given statement(s) is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c) Both 1 and 2

Exp:- HDI rankings are based on a score between 0 to 1 that a country earns from its record in the key areas of human development. Each dimension is given a weightage of 1/3. The HDI is a sum total of the weights assigned to all dimension. Hence, correct the answer is option (c)

5. With reference to the Human Poverty Index, consider the following statements:
1. It is used by the UNDP to measure human development.
2. It is a non-income measure.
3. Often the Human Poverty Index is less revealing than the Human Development Index.
Which of the above given statements is/are correct?
(a)1 & 2 Only
(b) 1 & 3 Only
(c) 2 & 3 Only
(d) 1, 2 & 3

Answer (a)1 & 2 Only

Exp:- The Human Poverty Index is related to the Human Development Index. This index measures the shortfall in human development. It is a non-economic measure. The probability of non serving fill the age of 40, the adult literacy rate, the number of people who do not have access to clean water and the number of small children who are underweight are all taken into account to show the shortfall in human development in any region. Often the Human Poverty Index is more revealing than the Human Development Index and Human Poverty index are two important indices to measure human development uses by the UNDP. Hence, the correct answer is option (a)

6. What discourage woman to migrate from rural to urban areas in India?
1. Shortage of housing.
2. High cost of living.
3. Paucity of job opportunities.
4. Lack of security in cities.
Code:
(a)1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Exp:- Migration of ‘woman’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability shortage of housing, high cost of living. Paucity of Job opportunities, lack of security in cities are some of the factors that discourage the migration of woman from rural to urban areas. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)

7. Consider the following statements:
1. Climate and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the population distribution.
2. Density of population helps in getting a better understanding of the spatial distribution of population in relation to land
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct/
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c) Both 1 and 2

Exp:- An extreme climate such as very hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for human habitation. Areas with a comfortable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation, attract more people. People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. River valleys are among the most densely populated areas of the world. Spatial distribution of population can be better understood with the help of density of population. Hence, the correct answer is option(c)

8. Which of the following statements are correct ?
1. Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country.
2. Migrants act as agents of social change.
3. Migration leads to segregation of people from diverse cultures.
Code:
(a) Only 1 and 2
(b) Only 1 and 3
(c) Only 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer (a) Only 1 and 2

Exp:-Migration leads to the intermixing of people from diverse culture. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonymity which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Migrants act as agents of social change. The hew ideas related to new technologies, family planning girl’s education etc. Get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration also leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Hence, the correct answer is option (a)

9. Consider the following statements:
1. The amount of remittance sent by the international migrants is very meagre as compared to internal migrants.
2. Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (b) Only 2

Exp:- The amount of remittances sent by the internal migrants is very meagre as compared to international migrants. Hence, the correct answer is option (b)

10. Consider the following statements:
1. Reason for migration of males and females are different.
2. Work and employment have remained the main cause for female migration.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct ?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (a) Only 1

Exp:- Reasons for the migration of male and female are different. Work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration while it contributes little for female migration. Contrary to this greater percent of female move out from their parental houses following marriage. This is the most important cause in the rural areas of India. Hence, the correct answer is option (a)

11. Which of the following are pull factors for majority of rural migrants to urban areas?
1. Better opportunities
2. Availability of regular work
3. Education.
4. Sources of entertainment
Code:
(a)Only 1, 2 and 3
(b) Only 1, 2, and 4
(c) Only 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Exp:- The important pull factor for majority of rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages, better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)

12. Which of the following are the factors that led people in India to migrate from rural to urban areas?
1. Poverty
2. Education
3. High population pressure on the land.
4. Lack of basic infrastructural facilities.
Code:
(a)Only 1, 2 and 3
(b) Only 1, 2 and 4
(c) Only 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Exp:- In India people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty high population pressure on the land lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, natural disasters such as flood, drought, cyclonic storms. Earthquake, tsunami, wars and local conflicts. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)

13. Consider the following statements:
1. Migration has been an integral part and a very important factor in redistributing population over time and space.
2. India has witnessed the waves of migrants coming to the country from central and west Asia and also from south east Asia.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c) Both 1 and 2

Exp:- Migration leads to the redistribution of the population. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure Thus both the statements are correct. Hence, the correct answer is option (c)

14. Consider the following statements:
1. Main worker is a person who works at least 183 days in a year.
2. In the context of a country like India, the work participation rate tends to be lower in the areas of lower levels of economic development.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct ?
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (a) Only 1

Exp:- In the context of a country like India, the work participation rate lends to be higher in the areas of lower levels of economic development since the number of manual workers are needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities. Hence, the correct answer is option (a)

15. World Development Report has projected that population of India will touch 1,350 million by .....
(a) 2020
(b) 2025
(c) 2030
(d) 2035

Answer (b) 2025

Exp:- World Development Report has projected that population of India will touch 1,350 million by 2025. The World Bank’s Annual World Development Report Provides a wide international readership with an extraordinary window on development economics. Each year, the report focuses on a specific aspect of development. Hence, the correct answer is options (b)

16. With reference to growth of population in India, consider the following pairs:
1. 1901-1921 Period of stagnant growth of population.
2. 1921-1951 Period of population explosion.
3. 1951-1981 Period of steady population growth.

Which of the above given pairs is/are correctly mached?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 1 and 2
(c) Only 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer (a) Only 1

Exp :-
1901-1921 Period of stagnant growth of population.
1921-1951 Period of steady population growth.
1951-1981 Period of population explosion.
Hence, the correct answer is option (a)


17. Which of the following factors were responsible for the period of stagnant growth of India’s population from 1901-1921 ?
1. Poor health and medical services.
2. Illiteracy of people at large.
3. Inefficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities.

Code:
(a)Only 1 and 2
(b) Only 1 and 3
(c) Only 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d) 1, 2 and 3

Exp:- The Period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population, since in the period growth rate was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921. Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low. Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large and insufficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for a high birth and death rates in this period. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)

18. Consider the following statement:
1. Agricultural population includes cultivators and agricultural labourers and their family members.
2. Population doubling time is the time taken by any population to double it self at its current annual growth rate.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c) Both 1 and 2

Exp:- There is a great variation among regions in doubling their population. Developed countries are taking more time to double their populations as compared to developing countries. Most of the population growth is taking place in the developing world. Agricultural population include cultivators and agricultural labourers and their family members. Hence, the correct answer is option (c)

19. Consider the following statements:
1. The first population census in India was conducted in 1872 but its first complete census was conducted only in 1891.
2. India has a highly even pattern of population distribution.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Exp:- The first population census in India was conducted in 1872 but its first complete census was conducted only in 1881. Therefore, statement 1 is not correct. India has a highly uneven pattern of population distribution. Therefore, statement 2 is also not correct. Hence, the correct answer is option (d)

20. Consider the following statements:
1. Birth rate is the number of live births per lakh persons in a year.
2. The India, sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.

Which of the above given statement(s) is/are correct?
(a)Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (b) Only 2

Exp:- Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. The number of women and men in a country is an important demographic characteristic. The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex ratio. In some countries it is calculated as the number of males per thousand females. In India the sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males. Hence, the correct answer is option (b)

March 26, 2015

How East India Company Established British Empire in India? Explained.

Early Activities of the Company

16. The British arrival in India goes back to the early part of the seventeenth century. On December 31, 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted a royal charter to a large body of merchants who formed a new trading Company under the name of ‘The Company of Merchants of London, Trading into the East-Indies’.

15. Between 1601 and 1613, merchants of this Company, later known as John Company or more specifically East India Company, made twelve voyages to India.

14. In 1609 Captain William Hawkins came to the court of Jahangir to seek permission to establish a British presence in India, but met with failure.

13. Sir Thomas Roe, who presented himself before the Mughal Emperor in 1617, was more successful in his mission. In 1619, Roe obtained Jahangir’s permission to build a British factory in Surat, and in 1639, this was followed by the founding of Fort St. George (Madras, now Chennai).

12. Despite some reverses, such as the Company’s utter humiliation at the hands of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, with whom the Company went to war during 1688-91, the Company never really looked back.


Beginning of Political Domination




11. In 1757, on account of the English-hatched political conspiracy leading to the so-called battle of Plassey, where Robert Clive practically affected a wholesale defection of the forces of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daula, the East India Company found itself transformed from an association of traders to rulers exercising political sovereignty over a largely unknown land and people.

10. With in a decade, the Company not only won the hard-fought battle of Buxar against the deposed Mir Qasim of Bengal and his allies in 1764 but also acquired the Diwani, or the right to collect revenues on behalf of the Mughal Emperor, in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa in 1765.

9. The consolidation of British rule after the initial military victories fell to Warren Hastings, who did much to dispense with the fiction that the Mughal Emperor was still the sovereign to whom the Company was responsible.

8. Hastings also set about to make the British more acquainted with Indian history, culture, and social customs. His successors, though fired by the British imperialistic ambitions in India, also had to face the task of governance.



Foundation of British Empire

7. British rule was sought to be justified, in part, by the claims that the Indians required to be civilized, and the British rule would introduce in place of Oriental despotism and anarchy a reliable system of justice, the rule of law, and the notion of ‘fair play’.



6. Certain Indian social or religious practices that the British found to be detestable were outlawed, such as sati in 1829 by William Bentinck, and an ethic of ‘improvement’ was said to shape British social policies.


5. In the late 1840s and early 1850s Dalhousie brought more territories under native rulers were corrupt, inept, and motoriusly indifferent about the welfare of their subjects, or that since the native ruler had failed to produce a biological male heir to the throne, the territory was bound to ‘lapse’ into British India upon the death of the ruler.


4. Such was the fate of several Indian states, such as Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur (1849), Baghat (1850), Udayapur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854), and most tragically Awadh (1956). The Nawab of Awadh or Oudh, Wajid Ali shah, was especially loathed by the British as the worst specimen of the Oriental Despot, more interested in indulgence than in the difficult task of governance.


3. Shortly after the annexation of Awadh, British India witnessed the so-called ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ to recall the colonial terminology, or the ‘First War of National independence’ as per the nationalist perception, or the ‘Popular Upheaval’ of 1857 to use the politically more correct terminology.


2. This was by far the Greatest threat posed to the British since the beginnings of their acquisition of an empire in India in 1757, and within the space of a few weeks in May large chunks of territory in the Gangetic plains had been taken over by the rebels.


1. Atrocities were committed on both sides, and conventionally the rebellion is perceived as marking the moment when the British would always understand themselves as besieged by hostile natives, just as the Indians understood that they could not forever be held in submission.

March 01, 2015

Important Days Should Know

SOME IMPORTANT DAYS & DATES  WE SHOULD KNOW: 

JANUARY
Jan 1-Global Family Day.
Jan 12-Youth's Day.
Jan 15-Army Day.
Jan 23-Birth Anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
Jan 26-Republic Day.
Jan 26-International Customs Day.
Jan 28-Birth anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai.
Jan 28-Data Protection Day.
Jan 30-Martyr Day.
Jan 30-World Leprosy Eradication Day.
FEBRUARY
Feb 4-World Cancer Day.
Feb 5-Kashmir Day.
Feb 6-International Day against Female Genital Mutilation.
Feb 12-Darwin Day.
Feb 12-World Day of the Sick.
Feb 14-Valentine’s Day.
Feb 20-World Day of Social Justice.
Feb 21-International Mother Language Day.
Feb 22-World Scout Day.
Feb 23- World Peaces and Understanding Day.
MARCH
Mar 4-World Day of the Fight Against Sexual Exploitation.
Mar 8-International Womens' Day.
Mar 13-World Kidney Day.
Mar 13-World Rotaract Day.
Mar 15-World Consumer Rights Day.
Mar 20-International Day of the Francophonie.
Mar 20-World Day of Theatre for Children and Young People.
Mar 21-World Sleep Day.
Mar 21-World Forestry Day.
Mar 21-International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
Mar 22-World Water Day.
Mar 23-World Meteorological Day.
Mar 24-World TB Day.
Mar 24-International Day for Achievers.
Mar 25-International Day of Remembrance - Victims of Slavery and Transatlantic Slave Trade.
Mar 27-World Drama Day.
APRIL
Apr 1-Foolish's Day.
Apr 2-World Austism Awareness Day.
Apr 7-World Health Day.
April 17-World Haemophilia Day.
April 18-World Heritage Day.
April 22-Earth Day.
April 23-World Book and Copyright Day.
April 25-World Malaria Day.
April 29-International Dance Day.
MAY
May 1-International Labour Day.
May 3-Press Freedom Day.
May 4-Coal Miners Day.
May 8-World Red Cross Day.
May 9-Victory Day.
May 11-National Technology Day.
May 12-International Nurses Day.
May 14-World Migratory Day.
May 15-International Day of the Family.
May 17-World Information Society Day.
May 21-Anti-Terrorism Day.
May 31-World No Tobacco Day.
JUNE
Jun 4-International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression.
Jun 5-World Environment Day.
Jun 7-International Level Crossing Awareness Day.
Jun 8-World Oceans Day.
Jun 12-World Day against Child Labour.
Jun 14-World Blood Donor Day.
Jun 17-World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought.
Jun 20-World Refugee Day.
Jun 23-United Nations Public Service Day.
Jun 23-International Widow's Day.
Jun 26-International Day against Drug Abuse and IIlicit Trafficking.
Jun 27-International Diabetes Day.
JULY
Jul 1-Vanamahotsav Day.
Jul 1-National Doctor's Day.
Jul 11-World Population Day.
Jul 12-Malala Day.
Jul 18-Nelson Mandela International Day.
July 28-World Nature Conservation Day.
Jul 30-International Day of Friendship.
AUGUST
Aug 3-Independence Day of Niger.
Aug 5-Independence Day of Upper Volta.
Aug 9-International Day of the World's Indigenous People.
Aug 12-International Youth Day.
Aug 15-Independence Day(India).
Aug 23-International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition.
Aug 29-National Sports Day (Birthday of Dhyan Chand).
SEPTEMBER
Sept 5-Teachers' Day  (Dr. Radhakrishnan's Birth Day).
Sept 7-Forgiveness Day.
Sept 8-International Literacy Day.
Sept 14-Hindi Day.
Sept 14-World First Aid Day.
Sept 16-World Ozone Day.
Sept 21-International Day of Peace.
Sept 21-World Alzheimer's Day.
Sept 25-Social Justice Day.
Sept 27-World Tourism Day.
OCTOBER
Oct 1-International Day of Older Persons.
Oct 2-Birth Anniversary Of Gandhiji.
Oct 2-International Day of Non-Violence.
Oct 3-World Nature Day.
Oct 3-World Habitat Day.
Oct 4-World Animal Day.
Oct 5-World Teacher's Day.
Oct 8-Indian Air-force Day.
Oct 9-World Post Day.
Oct 11-International Girl Child Day.
Oct 12-World Arthritis Da.
Oct 14-World Standards Day.
Oct 15-World Students Day.
Oct 16-World Food Day.
Oct 17-International Day for the Eradication of Poverty.
Oct 20-World Statistics Day.
Oct 24-United Nations Day.
Oct 31-World Thrift Day.
NOVEMBER
Nov 1-Kannada Rajyotsav (Karnataka)
Nov 1-World Vegan Day.
Nov 5-World Radiography Day.
Nov 9-World Services Day.
Nov 14 -Children's Day. (Birth Anniversary of Jawahar Lal Nehru).
Nov 16-International Day for Endurance.
Nov 17-International Students Day.
Nov 17-National Journalism Day.
Nov 18-World Adult Day.
Nov 19-World Citizen Day.
Nov 20-Universal Children's Day.
Nov 21-World Television Day.
Nov 21-World Fisheries Day.
Nov 25-World Non-Veg Day.
Nov 26-Law Day.
Nov 30-Flag Day.
DECEMBER
Dec 1-World AIDS Day.
Dec 2-World Computer Literacy Day.
Dec 2-International Day for the Abolition of Slavery.
Dec 3-International Day of People with Disability.
Dec 3-World Conservation Day.
Dec 4-Navy Day.
Dec 5-International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development.
Dec 7-International Civil Aviation Day.
Dec 9-The International Day Against Corruption.
Dec 10-International Day of Broadcasting.
Dec 10-Human Rights Day.
Dec 11-International Mountain Day.
Dec 14-World Energy Day.
Dec 18-International Migrants Day.
Dec 19-Goa's Liberation Day.
Dec 20-International Human Solidarity Day.
Dec 29-International Biodiversity Day.